Parties are events, somewhat unusual events, where people gather
together to learn how to perform PK. PK stands for psychokinesis,
or mind over matter! PK Parties work the best when people have fun
and generate a lot of emotion, much like a party. Thus, I named
them PK Parties.
purpose of this paper is to give information about the PK Parties,
give their history, and provide all you need to learn how to perform
PK yourself --- even give PK Parties yourself. Over 8500 people
have attended my PK Parties as of May 1988. About 85% of them have
at least had what I call the "kindergarten," metal bending
experience. These parties are really not about metal bending. They
are about learning how to use the power of your mind. Metal is a
very useful feedback mechanism. Performing PK is really simple;
we do it all the time. Often people are not aware how they can use
their PK ability. There are some aspects of learning this technique
that can help a lot of people in their daily lives.
am an aeronautical and astronautical engineer. I taught aircraft
structures at the University of Michigan. I now work for a very
large aerospace company in Southern California, managing an advanced
research group. Unfortunately, my work with the company is not nearly
as advanced as the information I am including in this paper. All
of my work in PK and other areas of parapsychology is done on my
own time, as an independent researcher.
interest in paranormal phenomena began in the mid-1970's when I
learned about remote viewing by reading an article in the IEEE Spectruml
written by Harold Puthoff and Russell Targ. They were employed by
Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International at that time. "Remote
viewing" is a name given to clairvoyance by these SRI researchers
in order to give this phenomenon a more scientific sounding name.
Remote viewing permits people to perceive things at a remote site,
without using their physical senses. That is an anomaly in our current
formal science, just as is PK. Our current science does not have
an explanation for these phenomena.
was very skeptical about remote viewing when I was first exposed
to the idea. However, I did continue to read about it and finally
met Puthoff and Targ at SRI. They suggested that I run my own experiments
in remote viewing. That idea appealed to me, so I found a women
who seemed to be able to perceive things at remote locations and
I asked her to participate in some experiments. These experiments
worked, much to my amazement. A few years later, I wrote a conceptual
model2 of how the brain and mind might interact with
nature in an attempt to explain remote viewing. In trying to put
together a model to explain these phenomena, I had to stretch my
scientific background. Even though current physics works very well
for most scientific applications, it does not go far enough to explain
paranormal phenomena. By the end of the 1970's, I had conducted
enough remote viewing experiments until I personally was convinced
that that phenomenon was real. I wrote this model and was challenged
to test it. I accepted that challenge as the standard scientific
approach wherein people postulate a model, test its predictions,
and if it doesn't work, fix it.
had heard of some PK experimental results that had suggested time
shifts, much like the time shifts that I had noted in the remote
viewing data. In remote viewing, when a person sends his mind out
to a remote place, he does not necessarily get the information from
that remote place at the current, what we call, time. Sometimes
people get information from another time, like four, or even forty
years ago. That is a real problem to understand --- where is that
information stored? In part of my model I suggest that when you
send your mind out to a point in space, the mind sweeps in time.
I recognize that there are a lot of other models about time. As
an engineer, it is very difficult to throw out time. Learning how
the mind accesses stored information from some other time, which
can sometimes be in the future, is a real important accomplishment.
What I found was that the mind seems to lock onto the time of a
peak emotional event at that remote place. One time I had a remote
viewer go to the latitude and longitude coordinates where there
was a sunken ship. There it was, sitting with half of it above the
ocean, rusting with lots of seagulls sitting on it. The remote viewer
described a scene that had a lot of excitement --- people running
around, explosions occurring, and generally a lot of panic --- while
the ship was sinking. That, of course, was the peak emotional event
at that point in space. I used to say that if you want some paranormal
phenomenon to happen at the current time, then you deliberately
create a peak emotional event. In remote viewing, viewers use meditation
techniques, while being very quiet, to remove the mental noise.
At PK Parties we do just the opposite. We create as much noise and
as much excitement as we possibly can, and hope that this becomes
the biggest peak emotional event that has ever occurred at that
place at anytime. In effect, all the people in the group have their
minds lock onto the present time, and we get the paranormal events
test this idea, in January 1981, I decided to have a party wherein
people could learn how to perform psychokinesis. Severin Dahlen,
a metallurgist, came into my office a week before the first PK Party
and said that he knew how to teach people to bend metal with their
minds. He had been working with children at the University of California
- Irvine. They had a little boy who could stare at a key and burn
a hole through it. Since I was about to have this PK Party, I asked
Severin if he would help at the party by giving the metal bending
instructions. The instructions he gave at that first PK Party are
identical to those still given at PK Parties.
gathered 21 people in my home in Huntington Beach, California. Basically,
half of them were people I met through the remote viewing research
who were interested in psychic types of things. The other half were
members of a tennis club I belong to, and they didn't know much
about using their minds. I had stopped at the Sears Company hardware
department on the way home that night and purchased a 5/ 16"
steel rod that I could not bend with all my strength. I said to
myself, "Boy, if that gets bent, I will be impressed."
the first PK Party, we were sitting in a circle and I had passed
out my grandparents antique silverware --- it has all been dedicated
to science now. There was a lot of giggling and laughter because
I do not think people believed that this was really going to happen.
I don't think that I thought it was going to happen either. However,
I was testing this conceptual model and had to follow through with
the experiment. All of a sudden a fourteen-year-old boy had the
fork he was holding begin to have the head slowly fall over. He
started screaming and yelling; he jumped up out of his chair. That
got everyone's attention so that everyone in the room saw the fork
bending over. As I looked around the room, everyone's eyes were
huge as they stared at this boy's fork. I like to call this an instant,
belief system change. All of a sudden, other people found that the
silverware they were holding became soft in their hands. They later
described it as if the metal became a little warm and felt like
putty in their hands. It seems to lose its structure for a few seconds.
The metal stays soft for between five and thirty seconds. Here they
were, finding what is normally nice hard silverware becoming soft
and structureless in their hands. Most of the people in the room
then began to wildly bend up the silverware. They were screaming
and yelling, and this was a real peak emotional event occurring
in my living room. In the middle of all this pandemonium I reached
back to my dining room table and grabbed the big steel rod, handed
it to the fourteen-year-old boy and said, "Bend this!!"
He looked at me and said "I can't do that." Then I said
"Don't ever say can't --- that is like putting a block in your
mind." He agreed to try and started rubbing his hand up and
down the steel rod. After about five minutes I again heard him yelling.
He was jumping up and down in the middle of the living room. With
no more force than simply moving his hands while holding the rod
over his head, he bent that rod into a 270 degree turn. The next
day I rushed over to the Sears store and bought all the rest of
the rods that size in their bin and took them into the laboratory.
We had the head metallurgist try to physically bend one of the similar
rods. He was a big man, about 200 lbs. He was not able to bend the
rod until he finally bent it over his knee, using all his might
--- red faced and all. Seeing the difference between the young man
doing it with no apparent effort at the PK Party, and the big metallurgist
using a tremendous effort to bend it physically, really impressed
were only two people at the first PK Party who did not achieve what
I now call "kindergarten bending." One was a lady who
had told a friend of hers that she did not see any sense in bending
silverware. It was as if she put up a mental block. The other person
who did not bend was so busy analyzing what was going on that he
didn't succeed either.
we do kindergarten bending at the PK Parties, what we are really
looking for is to find the moment when the metal gets soft and loses
its structure in your hands. You may feel heat coming out of the
metal. It often feels like it changes consistency. When you feel
the moment that it gets soft, you push on it a little. I named this
process "warm forming." I use that term to make it sound
more scientific, as Puthoff and Targ called clairvoyance "remote
viewing." I call this warm forming because when the silverware
feels a little warm, you form it. In kindergarten, you use two hands
and apply about one tenth the pressure necessary to bend the silverware
physically. Almost everyone can bend silverware physically. However,
in kindergarten metal bending we are using both hands, so that you
will learn to find the time when the metal loses its structure,
gets soft, and becomes a little warm. Then you will be aware of
the difference between what it takes to bend the metal physically
and with PK. After we do kindergarten bending, we move into "high
school" bending where we do things beyond physical strength.
the beginning of PK Parties I always talk about the history of PK
Parties and show examples of bent up flatware and silverware. Many
forks are mangled beyond recognition, with the tines twisted all
around. Spoons are also shown that have their handles twisted around
many times. Some people like to call this stuff "psychic artwork."
It is not really good for much except that some find that putting
it on their desk at work gives their boss a new perception of what
they can do; or putting it on your mantle creates many hours of
discussion; or it may be made into wind chimes. If you are into
the healing arts, it is useful to put some of this bent up silverware
around where you do the healing because people come in, see the
bent silverware, and ask about it. This gives you an opportunity
to talk about PK --- mind over matter, and their belief that you
might be able to help heal them begins to grow. This then makes
it much easier to help them be healed. Obviously, if you can bend
metal, you should be able to heal bones, skin, etc. Kindergarten
PK is always fun because it lets you go home with a bunch of pieces
of bent up trophies.
is where we all start at the PK Parties. Sometimes people bring
ridiculous things to the party like crow bars, heavy chains, etc.
They are really into challenging and fundamentally are not interested
in experiencing the phenomena themselves. I insist that we all start
with kindergarten because once you feel the moment when the metal
gets soft in your own hands, then you are aware that you did it.
I really want to teach people how to do it. I am not into demonstrating.
At the parties everyone gets to see plenty of people bending metal.
Once you learn how to do this, then achieving goals and doing other
important things in your life is much easier. PK can even be used
for the little things. Once a lady wrote that she was able to bend
a curtain rod into the correct shape for her room. Another man called
to say that he had taken a nut off a bolt from the bottom of his
car with his hand after he remembered the PK --- he had broken all
his normal tools on that nut before remembering.
you are bending the kindergarten silverware, if you were simply
to bend it over, the head of the fork or spoon would stop when it
hits the handle. To go on and wrap the head around the handle many
times, you need to pull the head off to the side so that it misses
the handle as you form it. It only stays soft for between 5 and
30 seconds, so it is important to really go at it for the few seconds
that the metal is soft and has lost its structure. Also, you will
feel the metal "freeze" or reharden. The grain boundaries
resolidify and the result is that the soft metal abruptly gets hard
again --- and you are aware that you have successfully PKed it.
Sometimes, while you are doing kindergarten bending, you find that
there is some guy looking over your shoulder saying, "AH, you
are just bending it physically." That really doesn't help you
at all. So I suggest using a little technique that I developed to
shut down the interference from the skeptics. You simply get a big
smile on your face, look at the skeptic, and shout "SHUT
UP!" I really don't want the skeptics to get in the way.
I want you to learn how to do the PK and have lots of fun in the
school bending is when you bend something that is not possible with
normal physical strength. People who graduate from high school bending
earn a "Certified Warm Former" badge at my PK Parties.
I used to give people a certified warm former badge after they graduated
from kindergarten bending, but I found myself punching out so many
badges that I changed the requirement to get the badge after graduating
from "high school" bending. At the conventions where I
give PK Parties, it is always fun to see the people wearing their
badges the day after the party while carrying around their bent
up silverware and the more significantly bent material.
my PK Party lecture I always show examples of high school bending.
These are metal rods, typically 3/8" extruded aluminum rods,
that have been formed into odd shapes, and steel rods, up to a half
inch, that have been bent. Small ladies can bend the 1/2" rods.
I even have some old fashioned hacksaw blades that have been formed
into spirals. Usually, if too much physical force is applied to
the old fashioned hacksaw blades, they break in multiple pieces
because they are so brittle. At the PK Parties the hacksaw blades
become pliable, annealed, in a similar process to when the silverware
gets soft. I think that the dislocations in the grain boundaries
of the metal act as transducers to some unknown form of energy.
The mind establishes a link between this energy source and energy
is dumped into the grain boundaries. The energy has nowhere to go
so it turns into heat. This is the same process that happens with
known energy that gets dumped inside of another material as with
neutrons, x-rays, and microwaves. This heat melts the grain boundaries,
and the metal feels like it has lost its structure because the grains
inside the metal slip with respect to each other. The heat is transferred
away from the grain boundaries by normal conduction, and eventually
the "freezing" point of the metal is reached and the metal
becomes hard again. The reason that the metal only feels warm is
that the grain boundaries are very small compared to the size of
the grains in the metal. The thermal conductivity of the metal also
plays a role in that stainless steel has a very low thermal conductivity,
which allows a metal bender to have more time to find the moment
when the metal is soft. Metals like copper and silver have very
high thermal conductivity and it is hard to find the moment when
they become soft. Instead, that metal becomes very hot, and as people
continue to PK it, the overall temperature of the metal increases
until the people have to drop the metal or get burned. Sometimes
so much energy gets dumped into the grain boundaries that the metal
first melts, turns to liquid, and then turns to gas. When this occurs
inside the metal, it can blow the metal apart and sometimes a PK
metal bend is accompanied with a loud "pop." Some studies
have shown that material is missing after being PKed3.
If it had turned to gas and escaped in that form, then this is a
possible explanation. If metal has some prestress in it and it is
placed in an oven, the metal will curl up in order to relieve the
stress. Metallurgists call this creep. Similarly, if the grain boundaries
are temporarily softened using PK and the metal has some prestress
in it, then the metal will change shape in order to relieve that
stress and appear to bend spontaneously.
have run experiments4 where we have put hacksaw blades
in the middle of a PK Party where the only people who knew that
they were there were Severin Dahlen and myself. There was a control
hacksaw blade at another home which came from the same package.
All the blades were tested for their hardness before several PK
Parties. The ones exposed in the PK Parties continued to get softer
and the control never changed hardness. We think the annealing of
these hacksaw blades occurred as a result of a field effect that
was generated within the circle of people during their PK metal
bending efforts. These hacksaw blades went from their super hardened
state to a hardness level of annealed steel after exposure to four
PK Parties. That was a significant experiment.
can imagine large groups getting together to do significant things.
I don't tell the jail population about this. However, if ever the
day comes that the convicts do begin to bend the bars, we have developed
a method for manufacturing jail bars that are PK proof.
of the things we do in high school bending is buckle the bowls of
silver plated spoons. These spoon bowls are part of a shell structure
which makes them very difficult to buckle with physical force. I
originally took a bunch of these spoons down to my tennis club and
had some of the big jocks try to buckle the bowls. Not one buckled.
That was when I was convinced that this is a difficult task to perform
physically. However, at the PK Parties, a lot of people buckle the
silver plated spoon bowls. This feat earns people a "Certified
Warm Former" badge at my PK Parties.
many PK Parties, I have people sprout seeds in their hands. Once
you have learned how to do the metal, you can sprout the seeds.
It is a very similar process. Instead of using the command "bend,"
you use the command "sprout." I often use soy bean seeds
and put them in water at the beginning of the party so that they
have absorbed some moisture by the time people attempt to sprout
school is where people hold the bottom of the handles of two dinner
forks, one in each hand. You do not have to be a graduate of kindergarten
to go to metal bending graduate school. It is best to start with
forks that are perfectly normal, no twists, no uneven spacing between
the tines; in other words, they look just like they were when brand
new. This way you will be aware at the end of graduate school if
they bent by themselves, spontaneously. Do not use the other hand
to bend them in graduate school. The hope is that the forks have
some stress put into them at the time of manufacture, and that when
this is relieved the forks will bend by themselves. In graduate
school we hold these forks, one in each hand, and command them to
bend. It's kind of silly sitting around shouting at the forks. Often
they bend. One time at a PK Party in downtown Los Angeles, there
was a man staring intently at the fork in his right hand. From across
the room, I saw the fork in his left hand bend over. He didn't see
it. So I went over to him and said, "Did you see the fork in
your left hand?" He turned his head to look at it and said,
"Wow, how did that happen?" As he said that, the fork
in his right hand bent over. He was really upset because he didn't
get to see either one of them bend spontaneously. But the rest of
us did. It is really convincing when you see the forks bend spontaneously.
About 10% of the people who have attended PK Parties have reported
that at least one of their graduate school forks has bent spontaneously.
Many bend over so significantly that it is very obvious to the naked
eye. It is like releasing a thought form. The thoughts cannot work
to accomplish what you want when you hold onto them. But if you
release a powerful thought form, then its information can set up
the mind links to accomplish the goal --- in this case, transfer
energy from some other dimension into the grain boundaries of the
metal to help it bend.
technique for metal bending, or any other form of PK for that matter,
has three simple steps. First, you connect your mind to what you
want to affect by simply thinking about it. Just before I give you
the final instructions, I will give you a specific technique for
how to do this. There are many other techniques --- and they all
work. You certainly are welcome to try other techniques on your
own. At PK Parties, I like people to use my technique. We do this
connecting between our mind and other things in our society all
the time. In remote viewing, we teach people to send their minds
out to remote places. For metal bending, we send our mind to the
object or goal that we want to affect. When holding the metal, it
is real easy to be aware where the object is located. It's hard
to miss. In remote PK, the biggest challenge is to get the mind
to connect with what the people want to affect. At least in the
PK Parties I have people hold the metal so that they get a good
second step is what I call the command. If you imagine your mind
connecting to the object, then we simply send this command over
that mind link. The command step is something we all do. During
a PK Party we shout at the metal. We do this to make the goal clear
to our minds. You do not really need to shout. However, I like to
do that as a way of getting a group all working together and, if
you will, to start getting the peak emotional event. Get the energy
going. People get excited. Everyone together shouting at the metal
is not only fun, it works. I, personally, had a very hard time shouting
at the metal in the early days of the PK Parties because it just
wasn't scientific and it is like assigning some consciousness to
the metal. Tough idea to accept with our current understanding of
physics. However, at the PK Parties, we just let go of our inhibitions
and everyone shouts the command "BEND" at the metal. It
is really the goal that we want that we are using as the command.
It is easy to act silly when you don't know everyone at the party.
My next to the worst PK Party was for a group of nine Ph.D. physicists
and their families at Los Alamos. All the wives and children bent
silverware, but none of the physicists bent. It wasn't that they
were physicists because many physicists have been to PK Parties
and bent. But these scientists all worked together in a very closed
environment and, in a sense, their subconsciouses would not allow
them to deviate from the norm. The same phenomenon sometimes occurs
between spouses at PK Parties. They are so linked and patterns established
at the subconscious level that they do not allow each other to learn
this new skill. For this reason, I suggest spouses not sit next
to each other at PK Parties.
third step is what I call "letting go." Releasing. This
is something that is not really taught in our society. At the PK
Parties, many people learn this step. Sometimes people think that
metal bending takes a lot of concentration, and that is not true.
It takes a little bit of concentration, and then the command, and
then letting go, letting it happen, releasing the thought. The reason
I create lots of pandemonium during the PK Parties ---people shouting
and screaming, people jumping up and down, wildly bending their
silverware --- is to divert their attention --- distract them. When
people are sitting there wondering why their fork or spoon is not
bending, and they hear others shouting and celebrating, they look
over to see what is happening, and that causes them to let go! The
best thing you can do to help others bend using PK is to distract
them by being silly and loud. I have seen so much PK happen when
people finally let go or are distracted --- that's when it happens.
This same technique can be used for healing yourself and others
with PK --- mind over matter.
the end of my lectures at the PK Parties I always say, "If
it is not good enough to learn that you can do almost anything,
then I have two bonuses for coming to a PK Party." The first
one is a stock market tip. PK Parties have become so popular all
over the world that literally millions of people are learning to
bend metal. Eldon Byrd went to Japan to put a PK Party on for national
Japanese television. He gave the PK Party over the airways where
the people at home could participate. They had TV cameras placed
all over Tokyo and told the people to bring the things they bent
out to the street so they could be photographed. The TV station
estimated that between 6 and 20 million people came running out
into the streets with bent up metal and chop sticks. It was wild.
Certainly in Orange County, California, I think I have bought up
all the old used silverware and flatware. The bonus stock market
tip is to buy stock in silverware companies.
other bonus is that I teach people at the PK Parties how to use
a dowser. A dowser is a very sensitive instrument that allows an
individual to access remote information without being consciously
aware of the information. It is usually some type of stick, rod,
or pendulum that has something on the end that can easily move and
respond to the slightest movement. A necklace or a fine string with
a weight on the end can be used as a pendulum. The mind goes out
and gets the information, brings it into the brain and into, what
we call, the unconscious. The brain sends signals to the muscles
in the arm, and those signals are carried to the muscles by the
autonomic nervous system. The muscles in the arm twitch and this
sensitive pendulum or dowsing rod moves. You can ask it to show
you "yes." It will then move in some pattern. Mine usually
goes clockwise. You can then ask it to show you "no,"
and it will usually move in the opposite direction. Once you have
established a direction for yes and no, then you can use it to test
the silverware to see "if it is willing to bend for you today."
You simply touch the pendulum to a piece of silverware and then
ask it, "Are you willing to bend for me today?" If it
says yes, then you have a good subconscious connection with it,
and it probably will get mangled up into a trophy for you when you
do the metal bending. If it says no, then get another piece of stainless
flatware for your first metal bending experience. It may seem silly
to do this, but it works.
bending works best in a group, as in a party of 15 or more people,
especially for your first attempt. I estimate that about 50% of
the people who are successful at the PK Parties can bend after the
party. With practice, you can learn how to do it at anytime without
try to create a peak emotional event at a PK Party. The bigger this
peak emotional event, the better the results. When I am in different
parts of the United States, I say "It's OK to do these things
in California." Usually the people can relate to doing weird
things in California, so I have them pretend that they are in California
for the PK Party. It is important to act silly and have fun during
PK Party is not really about bending metal, but allows you to experience
things which you may not have believed possible, which in turn should
help you reduce some of the artificial limits placed on your life.
At the end of the PK Party I always take a picture of people with
their bent up forks and spoons, and later send it to them so they
will have a record of how happy they looked after the party with
all of their bent material.
we use metal as the feedback mechanism for when you are achieving
PK and it is important to use silverware that is "approved"
for bending --- not some of the treasured family silverware. Some
people have a big attachment to silverware and they may not be interested
in bending silverware. They are usually the ones who ask me if it
can be bent back. I suggest they put their reservations off to the
next day and have some fun with old flatware that people have brought
to be bent --- create some wild looking, mangled forks and spoons
the parties I deliberately break the pattern of people listening
to a lecture. People move around, talk and work with others during
the bending part of the party. They have a lot of fun and create
as much excitement and pandemonium as possible. In fact, the PK
Parties break a lot of patterns. All people can learn the simple
steps for applying PK. Once someone experiences the metal bending,
or sometimes by just seeing someone else's fork or spoon bend spontaneously,
a "belief switch" occurs in them which can be useful in
opening up their belief that other things might also be possible.
a group of people together, have lots of old silverware and stainless
flatware available, typically four or five pieces per person. Have
as many children over the age of five as possible. Younger than
five, they tend to cry with all the shouting. Ask everyone to be
willing to be real silly and, especially when they are bending the
silverware, have them yell and scream so that others can see them
--- many just naturally display a lot of emotion because having
the PK experience is "different" and fun. You will be
certain that PK works when you feel the fork or spoon that you are
holding lose its structure, become warm and soft in your hands,
at which time you can form it into any shape you wish.
have the people sit in a circle, often on the floor all around me,
as I stand in the middle to give the final instructions. Give the
instructions and you can have your own PK Party. The instructions
I give are: "Get a point of concentration in your head. Focus
it to a point. Then grab it, bring it down through your head, neck,
shoulder, arm, hand, and put it into the silverware where you want
it to bend." Then on the count of three, I have everyone shout
the command "BEND" three times. Then I say "release
it." This means letting go of the "thought form."
Then people can test the silverware to feel when it becomes soft
and pliable. After people have bent four or five pieces of stainless
flatware in kindergarten bending, then have them try to buckle the
bowl of silver-plated spoons. Do not use knives because they sometimes
break and cut people. Similarly, glass and graphite pencils tend
to explode, which are not good for your safety. Plastic utensils
are great for children because they are cheap and can be used for
the after PK Party urge to keep bending things. Once a lady had
buckled five spoon bowls in a row, but complained about not being
able to bend the plastic utensils. I simply told her that if she
thought of a radio dial, bending metal was over on the left side,
and to bend the plastic all she had to do was move the indicator
over to the right side of the dial. Within five minutes she came
back to show me a whole pile of bent up plastic utensils.
most people have achieved kindergarten bending and some have either
buckled the spoon bowls or bent steel rods, then I have everyone
go to graduate school. Give each of them two dinner forks which
you are sure are straight, and then repeat the instructions for
metal bending. It is absolutely amazing to watch the forks bend
by themselves --- without touching with the other hand.
Puthoff, H., and Targ, R., "A perceptual channel for information
transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent
research," Proceedings of the IEEE 64, 3 (March 1976) 329-354.
Jack Houck, "Conceptual Model of Paranormal Phenomena,"
ARCHAEUS 1,1 (Winter 1983)
"Psychokinetic Interaction with Laboratory Grown Crystals,"
experiment conducted with Uri Geller June 13, 1975 (coparticipant:
J. Mishlove) Psi Realite' June 1978, Vol. 7, Pg. 34, Paris, France.
Severin Dahlen, "Remote Annealing of High Carbon Steel Parts,"
ARCHAEUS, 5,1, (February-March 1986) 3.