maw.pdf zip file
27 - May 1, 1994
if the ability to do remote viewing, PK, and other high performance
mental techniques could be induced with high-tech means? There
is some evidence that there is a mental access window (MAW)
when the predominat frequency of an individual's electroencephalogram
(EEG) is 7.81 to 7.83 Hz. This is the same frequency range in
which slight oscillations in the earth's magnetic field occur,
known as "Schumann Resonance". (Interestingly, this
frequency also corresponds to REM sleep and hypnogognic imagery.)
Houck first learned of the ideas from Dr. Bob Beck when he purchased
a simple EEG biofeedback unit from Beck. The unit provides auditory
feedback of brain activity to the user. Beck suggested that
they make a recording of an input signal of exactly 7.81 Hz.
Houck listened to the EEG unit attached to his head in one ear
while simultaneously listening to the 7.81 Hz (using frequency
modulation, the EEG signal is combined with a 2000 Hz tone so
it can be heard) recording in the other ear. After a few minutes
of relaxing, the two sounds became very similar, and then ---
a full blown out-of-body experience. Of the 45 people who have
tried this equipment, approximately one-half have reported either
a full blown or partial out-of-body experience. This experience
led to evaluating the frequency spectrum of people's EEGs, and
has resulted in some correlations with the type of individual.
For example, psychics and geniuses have strong components of
their EEG frequency in the MAW, even in their awake state.
over twenty years, I have been interested in "Remote Viewing".
Even though this phenomenon has been around since the beginning
of man, only since the early 1970's has it been researched for
training and application, originally by Targ and Puthoff at the
Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International in Menlo Park,
California1. They coined
the term "Remote Viewing" in an attempt to describe
an individual's ability to have mental access to remote places
and "see" what was there. In the metaphysical community
this ability is known as clairvoyance.
the late 1970's, I began to conduct experiments in an attempt
to replicate some of the SRI experiments. I was sufficiently impressed
by what I observed during these experiments that I concluded that
humans really could send their minds out to remote places and
not only "see", but all other body senses also have
access to information at that remote location. This is why some
research laboratories began calling the phenomenon "Remote
Perception". In 1980, I wrote a paper2
to document my thoughts about how, conceptually, the human brain/mind
might be able to access information at locations where the viewer
had never been. Some of the key points are listed below:
a. Each person has two complete sets of senses. One set is the
familiar physical senses (vision, hearing, feeling, smelling,
and taste). The other set I postulate is associated with the mind
and accesses information which is not necessarily local to the
physical body. The brain processes both sets of senses, as shown
in Figure 1.
b. There is a central storage system where all information is
stored, both past and possible future events. I call this the
Space Time Unit (STU). The original acronym was intended to be
funny --- you know, where everything is. Of course, engineers
are not known for being great spellers, especially this one. The
STU is probably located in another dimension, other than our normal
c. When the mind accesses a remote location, it scans in time
until it locks onto a "peak emotional event" at that
location. The information at that place and time is then available
in all sensory detail to the individual because it is being processed
by the brain. It was this idea that led to the metal bending experiments
which have become known as PK Parties3. Figure 2 is an attempt to display the type
of feedback loop that would have to occur, with the brain
transmitting information into the STU and constantly receiving
information both from the physical senses and the STU. The figure
shows the information being added in each sensory type (body sensory
signals represented by SBi where i is 1 through 5 for each of the senses, and external sensory
signals represented by SEi)
and processed by the appropriate cortex of the brain. The processed
sensory signal (Si) to
brain background noise (N) is critical to the clarity with which
a person perceives that sensory information. The background brain
noise seems to be a function of the total brain processing load
(the slow senses like taste and smell, do not contribute much
background noise whereas hearing and vision require much more
processing which results in more background noise). With this
model, memory is stored in the STU. Normally, the sensory signals
from an individual's physical senses are so strong, they overwhelm
the signals from the external senses, and the individual is unaware
of those signals. However, when the signals from the physical
body are reduced to the point where the external signals are completely
dominaant, then the person has a full blown out-of-body experience
or a dream which can combine data from memory and other information
in the STU. The key point is that the brain is still processing
the information, even though the individuals think they are at
some remote location during an out-of-body experience.
parameters for helping people learn how to do Remote Viewing are
somewhat understood (e.g., deep relaxation, quiet surroundings,
starting by accessing with the slow senses like smell), the transfer
mechanism for the information access and the conditions which
promote the brain processing of the remote senses are not well
understood. This paper is an accumulation of my thoughts on a
possible correlation of an individual's electroencephalogram (EEG)
characteristics and the earth's magnetic field oscillations, known
as Schumann resonance. Helping individuals to achieve their EEG
at the proper frequency should then allow them to have better
mental access to the STU, which in turn should improve their performance
on any mental task.
1952, a German mathematician, Schumann, postulated that the lightening
bolts throughout the earth stimulate the cavity between the earth
surface and ionosphere to resonate at extremely low frequencies
(ELF), causing the earth's magnetic field to oscillate at these
frequencies4. He suggested that these oscillations would be less than 11 Hz.
The magnetic detection equipment available at that time was not
sufficiently sensitive to measure these oscillations. A refinement
on his postulation was published in 19575.
In 1961 the National Bureau of Standards actually measured these
magnetic field oscillations6,
as shown in Figure 3.
eleven samples shown have the associated date shown in the figure.
There were two detection coils, one with the axis pointed north/south
(N-S) and the other pointed east/west (E-W). Soon after, additional
measurements were made and summarized in a frequency presentation,
shown in Figure 4, as presented in a report done for the CIA7.
Wortz suggested the primary Schumann oscillation was at 7.8 Hz,
with harmonics at 14.1 and 20.3 Hz. Dr. Robert Beck observed that
the Schumann resonance’s, often called waves, looked very much
like the EEGs of humans. He also averaged his Schuman resonance
measurements and compared these to EEG measurements taken from
shamans, healers, Indian yogis, and psychics, and concluded that
the primary mental access window (MAW) was between 7.81 and 7.83
Hz. I thought these researchers were indicating that the radiation
caused by the lightning was traveling around the earth between
the earth's surface and the ionosphere at the speed of light 7.81
to 7.83 times per second, depending on whether the path was around
the poles or the equator, respectively. However, my calculations
indicate it would be 7.49 to 7.51 Hz, if that was the correct
model. Actually, the height of the ionosphere is constantly changing
and these oscillations are affected by the sun spot activity as
as magnetic storms. The general idea is that as long as the earth
has been evolving, all things on the earth's surface have been
exposed to these magnetic field oscillations and possibly, when
an individual's EEG becomes the same frequency as the current
Schumann resonance, his or her brain synchronizes with these oscillations
and then the person's mind can easily access information throughout
was Dr. Beck who familiarized me with these ideas about the Schumann
waves.8 I purchased an EEG biofeedback unit that
he had designed and built. This particular unit has the following
a. Very small and thus very portable.
b. Battery operated only.
c. Primary feedback is auditory; the EEG signal is superimposed
on a 2,000 Hz tone using a frequency modulation technique so that
the ear can hear the oscillations. The signal amplitude is represented
by a variation in the frequency spread of the superimposed signal,
thus, it sounds more pronounced.
The ear can quickly be trained to recognize the frequency region
(alpha, beta, theta) and the amplitude of the signal. The tone
frequency range was chosen such that a standard cassette tape
recorder could be used to record the data.
d. An additional output source is provided so the actual EEG signal
can be displayed on a medical oscilloscope (i.e., isolated from
the house current).
e. The input electrodes are sufficiently sensitive so that only
salt water need be used to obtain a good electrical connection
with the human head.
f. The unit has one channel with the electrodes placed on the
head centerline (one electrode in the center of the forehead and
the other electrode in the center of the back of the head, frontal
to occipital-midline). This provides an average EEG signal between
the right and left hemispheres. When both hemispheres are synchronized
(in phase), the EEG signal is high. This helps the biofeedback
trainees to train themselves to synchronize their brain hemispheres.
A schematic of Beck's biofeedback EEG unit is shown in Figure
5. The definition I use for the frequencies corresponding to the
various brain wave states are shown in the following table:
personal experience using Beck's EEG biofeedback unit for three
months, approximately 20 minutes per day, was that I developed
the ability to relax quickly and to have some control over the
frequency of my brain waves. I also discovered that it was a
way for me to learn how to meditate, whereas otherwise I seemed
to never find the time.
that time my son had to do an eleventh grade physiology project.
He wanted to do an experiment measuring people's EEGs. In order
to present the data, I purchased an analog-to-digital (A/D)
board for my Apple II+ home computer. We set up a system where
he would record the brain waves of the subjects in his experiments
on cassette tape. We would then feed that data into a discriminator
(provided by Beck) which would remove the 2,000 Hz tone from
the EEG data. We fed this data through the A/D converter in
the computer. We wrote some software that would take 20 seconds
of the digitized EEG data and perform
a 256 point fast Fourier transform (FFT) on each second of data,
and present the results in a three-dimensional graphic display,
which could be printed as shown in Figure 6. The input
signal for this plot was a sine wave at 7.81 Hz. This
shows that the processing system is very clean and free of external
noise. Slight harmonics of the input frequency do show
up in the figure. The three axes of the plot are frequency,
amplitude (i.e., the amount of the total frequency components
being produced at each frequency), and time with the FFT of
the first second being shown in front and the FFT of the 20th
second being shown toward the back in the plane of the frequency
and amplitude axes. There is a vertical bar marking the
MAW frequency that is used for reference on all similar plots.
The bar also extends across the top at the MAW frequency along
the time axis. A schematic of the EEG frequency processing
equipment with Beck's EEG biofeedback equipment is shown in
Figure 7. That first Apple based system took approximately
30 minutes of computations to prepare one plot. Today,
my 66 MHz IBM computer system presents this data in almost real
the years, I have had the opportunity to measure the EEG patterns
of many interesting people. I presented some of these
data at the First Archaeus Congress in 19869.
Some interesting correlations have emerged between these brain
wave patterns and the type of individual. Several typical
examples are shown in the following figures:
8 - EEG pattern of the author, typical of a very focused, trainer
type individual. Note the single frequency ridge with
a very narrow frequency bandwidth.
9 - EEG pattern of a skilled psychic individual. Note
the extreme spread of simultaneous frequencies, with most occurring
in the theta and alpha regions.
10 - EEG pattern of a millionaire. Note the apparent predominance
of two simultaneous frequencies, one around 8 Hz and the other
in the alpha region. This same dual frequency pattern
appears on other millionaires. Is this pattern trainable?
11 - EEG pattern of a typical "psychic" healer.
12 - EEG pattern of a typical Remote Viewer. Note that
the peak of their EEG is near the MAW frequency.
normal people have many more high frequency components in their
EEG pattern. The results from this limited study suggest
that those individuals who seem to have better access to acquiring
information outside of their
physical body have strong components of their EEG frequencies
in the region of 8 Hz,amazingly close to the average Schumann
has been extensive research on sleep and dreaming during the
past thirty years. While I am no expert on these subjects,
let me suggest how these areas may interact with the idea of
there being a MAW. First, in Figure 13, an idealized history
of an individual's nighttime EEG frequency is postulated.
This would be from an individual who has a narrow band EEG frequency
so that a single frequency as a function of time can be discussed.
The time in this figure starts as a person in an excited state
begins to go to sleep. As the person relaxes, the brain
wave frequency begins to decrease, and eventually the person
loses consciousness (falls asleep). This probably occurs
around 9 Hz.
the brain wave frequency continue to drop, it reaches the point
where the first dream occurs, usually around 8 Hz. It
could be at the time the brain waves become coincident with
the Schuman resonance or move into the MAW. This is also
when rapid eye movement (REM) occurs, as well as hynogognic
imagery. (Are we watching what we are accessing?)
As mentioned earlier, dreams may combine data from our own memory
with data accessed from remote locations, as is the case when
data from memory and local objects is sometimes accidentally
combined with the intended remote site during remote viewing.
our hypothetical sleeping person in Figure 13 continues through
the night, the EEG frequency continues to decrease through the
first "deep sleep" cycle. When it again returns
to approximately 8 Hz, the person probably has another dream.
This Circadian rhythm continues through the night, but decreases
in depth as morning approaches. For people whose threshold
for consciousness is close to their MAW, the period of light
sleep will produce an in-and-out of sleep state or hypnopompic
imagery where accessing information is optimized. The
should be a time for getting good ideas, remote travel, remote
viewing, and remote healing.
after I did the EEG biofeedback training, Dr. Bob Beck suggested
that we make an audio tape of what a person's EEG would sound
like on his equipment when we input a pure sine wave at 7.81
Hz. His contribution was to listen
to this sound in one ear and listen to one's own brain waves
in the other ear and see what would happen if the sounds became
the same. A schematic of this equipment setup is shown
in Figure 14. One day I decided to try this. With
the biofeedback training, I was able to move my EEG frequency
to the same frequency being produced by the tape recording.
At the time, it seemed like I could even tell when the two sounds
became like one --- in phase. At that moment, I found
myself floating above a tennis court watching a tennis match
as part of a full-blown out-of-body experience. This seemed
to go on for some time before I had the sensation that the tennis
ball was about to hit me in the face. I jumped, and instantly
found myself in my own body, having jumped out of the chair
I had been sitting in, with all the wires hanging from my head.
I have described this experience, people want to try it themselves.
So, over the years, there have been about 45 people who have
tried this system. None of them has EEG biofeedback training.
Most have had fairly broadband frequency spectrums in their
EEG. They would listen to 20 minutes of sounds being frequency
modulated by 7.81 Hz from this cassette tape. About half
of them have reported some degree of out-of-body experience.
A few have fallen asleep. Others think it is "interesting".
I have not made any attempt to further test these people.
However, it is my opinion that this sound has the effect of
lowering people's brain wave frequencies and for some, induced
their EEG brain waves into the MAW. There are reported
to be other techniques for inducing selective brain wave frequencies,
such as flashing lights, other audio techniques (e.g., Monroe's
Hemisync), and even electromagnetic "pacers".
Many studies could be done in these areas, if funding were available,
to determine if Remote Viewing could be facilitated, general
intelligence could be improved, and remote PK and healing could
be enhanced. My contention is that there is great potential
to enhance any mind/brain application by improving our understanding
of the relationship between the earth's magnetic field oscillations
(Schumann resonance) and the apparent mental access window.
This understanding could then be used to develop techniques
that move our EEGs into that window. I recommend research
on the use of sensitive measurement equipment to determine the
current local Schumann resonance prior to the entrainment of
the individual's EEG brain to that frequency. I also recommend
research to determine how much of the frequency bandwidth of
an individual's brain
waves must be in the mental access window for that person to
achieve significant remote mental access.
R. Targ and H. Puthoff, Mind-Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic
Ability, New York: Delacorte Press, 1977
Jack Houck, "Conceptual Model of Paranormal Phenomena",
ARCHAEUS, Volume 1, Number 1, Winter 1983, p7
Jack Houck, "PK Party History," Psi Research,
Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1984, p67
W. O. Schumann, "Uber die strahlungslosen Eigenschwingungen
einer leitenden Kugel, die von einer Luftschicht und einer Ionospharenhulle
ungeben ist." Z. Naturforschg. 7A (1952): 149-154
W. O. Schumann, "Elektrische Eigenschwingungen des Hohlraumes
Erde-Luft-Ionosphare", Z. angew. u. Phys. 9 (1957):
C. Polk and F. Fitchen, "Schumann Resonances of the Earth-Ionosphere
Cavity --- Extremely Low Frequency Reception at Kingston, RI",
Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards---D.
Radio Propagation Vol. 66D, No. 3, May-June 1962
Wortz and Baurer, Novel Biophysical Information Transfer
Mechanisms (NBIT), Airesearch Manufacturing Company of California,
Document No. 76-13197, dated January 14, 1976
Robert C. Beck, "Mood Modification with ELF Magnetic Fields:
A Preliminary Exploration", ARCHAEUS, Volume 4,
Karen Olness and Jack Houck, "EEGs of High-Performance
Individuals," ARTIFEX, Vol. 5, No. 1, February-March
- and higher