4, 2002 (This
paper was originally written in 1980 and then published in Archaeus
MODEL OF PARANORMAL PHENOMENA
There is no question but that today's "hard" science
has progressed to the point where it can describe our everyday
reality very well. Much progress is now being made in the human,
or "soft," sciences as well, and many models have been
formulated in an attempt to expand the currently accepted understanding
of physics, a so-called hard science, to include consciousness
of the human mind.
The particular interest of the author for the past 22 years* has
been trying to understand and explain those paranormal phenomena
that have been labeled remote viewing, telepathy, mind reading,
psychometry, psychokinesis, and psychic healing.
When a literature review and experiments suggested that there
might well be something to paranormal (sometimes referred to as
"psychic)" phenomena, efforts were turned toward improving
the reliability of experiments in these areas as well as applying
and understanding these phenomena. Initial experiments were in
remote viewing (Reference 1), which involves a subject attempting
projection of his mind to a remote location to describe the scene.
Dr. Harold Puthoff and Mr. Russell Targ of Stanford Research Institute
International relabeled clairvoyance and out-of-body or astral
travel as "remote viewing" (Reference 2), because this
term is a more accurate label and dissociates remote viewing from
The conceptual model described in this paper was developed as
a result of experiments conducted. Most of the ideas incorporated
in this model are not new; almost all of them have been presented
before. The model simply integrates them and provides an interface
for the many models previously formulated. After it has been further
tested and refined, this model could be a powerful link between
the hard and soft sciences.
underlying concepts of this model follow in this paragraph. The
human brain is both a transmitter and a receiver of information
. . . the mind is not local just to the human body. Information
that is about events in all space and time is stored all around
us. The mind accesses this information storage system. The brain
processes information as a very advanced computer would from both
our physical senses and from this stored
The brain/mind can tune into any information in this storage system
when given specific instructions about space and time. The more
specific the instructions about the information desired, the better
the quality of the received (or retrieved) information.
Experimental observations since 1980, when the model was developed,
have suggested that all paranormal phenomena could be explained
using the same concept. Researchers in other kinds of paranormal
phenomena may find this model useful for increasing their understanding
and the reliability of their experiments.
When the environment is carefully controlled (i.e., a nearly sensory
free, dimly lit room with no pictures on the wall, no unusual
smells, and no noise), anyone can experience remote viewing with
the aid of a skillful interviewer. The interviewer is responsible
for doing the analytical thinking. He asks questions that allow
the remote viewer to be open to perceive the information from
all the senses (i.e., sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste),
which has caused a number of researchers (References 3 and 4)
to call it "remote perception."
The data reported at the time of the remote viewing can often
be accurate, but related to some other time at the target location.
Further analysis suggests that reported data correspond to a time
at or near when a peak emotional experience occurs at that location.
These time shifts, which may occur either forward and backward
in time, are one reason these types of experiments have been difficult
to replicate. Techniques for diminishing these difficulties are
discussed later in this paper.
Once the remote viewer is reporting data from the target location,
he has complete mobility around the target. He can go above it
to look down on it and all around it. He can also move freely
through walls. It has been observed in the author's experiments,
that at times the remote viewer perceives things to be a different
size from what he would normally perceive them to be. This is
easily corrected by asking him to be his normal size and then
things will appear as they normally do. The specificity required
by the interviewer of the remote viewer improves the remote viewing
data reported. The more specific the interviewer and the remote
viewer are about the location of the target (e.g., could be the
location of a person, latitude and longitude coordinates, a photograph),
the time for which the information is desired (e.g., a month from
now), the size the remote viewer assumes at the target (e.g.,
normal size), and the type of information desired (e.g., see the
target), the more successful the remote viewing becomes.
The psychological environment of a remote viewing experiment is
also very important. The interviewer must be supportive of and
have some rapport with the remote viewer. Understanding Neuro-Linguistic
Programming (Reference 5) can be very useful to the interviewer
with respect to working with the remote viewer's primary brain
sensory processing system. Experimenters who believe remote viewing
will not work generally confirm their belief (self-fulfilling
prophecy). If you want good remote viewing results, you must know
that it works and must concentrate on getting good data. It is
a technique that can be taught; performance does improve with
practice, and the author believes anyone can be trained to become
proficient at remote viewing.
On the basis of early experience with remote viewing, the author
predicted that psychokinesis (mind interacting with matter) could
also be better controlled by creating the proper environment (i.e.,
creating a peak, emotionally intense situation), having the individual
connect his mind with the object to be affected as in remote viewing,
and then commanding it to do his will.
In January of 1981, the author began experimenting with this idea
by conducting psychokinesis (PK) Parties (Reference 6). Approximately
85 percent of all the people attending these parties (approximately
16,500 people of all ages and types at 357 parties) have learned
to bend metal using PK, a process called "warm-forming,"
because this term is consistent with the slight temperature increases
noted and dissociates warm-forming from the occult. Approximately
half the people who have learned to warm-form retain the skill
even outside the PK Party atmosphere. These PK Parties have been
replicated over 100 times by other researchers with similar results.
PK Parties are reliable demonstrations of PK.
One of the reasons the PK Party format works so well is that people
get nearly immediate feedback. Metallurgical analysis of the warm-formed
metal and plastic provides additional insight into the physical
process that is occurring in the material. It has been found that
the two most important characteristics of metal that is easily
warm-formed are the large number of dislocations (i.e., broken
crystal structures along the metal grain boundaries) and low thermal
conductivity. The other key factor is that the individual must
be consciously willing to warm-form the metal. He must make a
mental connection to the object to be bent and deliberately will
it to bend. After a brief interval, the material becomes soft
from internal heating along the grain boundaries. Then a little
force will accomplish the bend. Even metal with low thermal conductivity
stays soft only from 5 to 30 seconds, and thus the most difficult
task is finding the moment to add the extra force. Many brittle
and otherwise physically unbendable objects have been warm-formed
(i.e., bent) at these parties. A few pieces of silverware that
have been warm-formed have then broken with a loud popping sound.
Some objects with large internal stresses, and a large number
of dislocations have been bent while being held in one hand and
not touched by the other hand. There have also been reports of
other objects being bent in the room. This is probably due to
existing stresses in those objects. Often a person who is unsuccessful
in his first attempt to do warm-forming learns how at subsequent
parties. People also seem to improve by attending multiple parties,
indicating that training is possible and that psychokinesis, like
remote viewing, can be taught.
In both remote viewing and warm-forming, there is at times a phenomenon
the researchers refer to as "the first-time effect."
A person may get dramatic results the first time he attempts one
of these activities and fail the next time he tries. This occurs
because he analyzes what he did and, failing to understand it,
becomes a little frightened. The conceptual model of the phenomenon
described in this paper gives people confidence that there can
be a scientific explanation, and it is believed this model can
help reduce the "first time effect."
In addition to the remote viewing and PK experiments, observations
have been made of a number of psychic activities by individuals
who seem to have unusual talents in mind reading, telepathy, and
psychometry. These activities also seem to conform to the conceptual
model presented herein.
With the conceptual model of a brain transmitting and receiving
information that is stored all around us, a question naturally
arises as to where this information is stored. It is not known.
However, it is interesting to note that our human senses only
perceive, for example, a very small portion of the electromagnetic
spectrum. This is not to suggest that the information storage
system is necessarily in the known electromagnetic spectrum. To
the author's knowledge, no instruments other than the brain have
been able to measure or directly contact this external information
storage system. There are instruments that seem to respond to
human will or register when a paranormal event occurs, but it
is thought this is due to PK.
There is much research currently underway on brain function. The
bio-chemical, quantum mechanical, and holographic models of the
brain all have made great contributions to our understanding of
how it works.
The model of the brain presented herein is simplistic by comparison,
but is adequate to help understand paranormal phenomena. The model
uses the digital computer analogy for most brain functions, taking
information from both the physical body sensors and the external
information storage system, processing it to produce what we perceive
as senses, and additionally processing this information by doing
what we call thinking, analyzing, comparing, and reacting. This
output then goes into the information storage system (i.e., memory)
and to the reporting function (i.e., speech, muscle movements,
etc.). This model of the brain is shown functionally in Figure
1. The physical sensors are listed on the left side of the figure.
The output from each sensor is represented as if a single signal
(S) comes from it with the subscript B to designate that it is
from a physical Body sensor. The signal from the nose is designated
as 1, tongue as 2, skin and nerve endings as 3, ears as 4, and
eyes as 5. Each of these signals goes into the corresponding brain
cortex for processing, as shown in Figure 1.
As stated previously, the mind seems to be capable of reaching
outside the physical body and acquiring information in all sensory
channels from remote locations (outside the physical body to a
distance on the other side of the earth and beyond). This is represented
in Figure 1 by a set of signals (S) with the subscript (E) to
designate that it is from sensors External to the physical body.
These senses are numbered in the same manner as the physical sensors.
sensor signals seem to enter the brain and be processed by the
corresponding physical sensory cortices, as if the cortices were
unaware of whether the signals emanated from the body sensors
or the source external to the body. It appears that people can
simultaneously experience both signals overlaid on each other.
For example, what some people see as an "aura" may be
the overlay of signals from both the physical body and external
sensors. It is as if the signals for each sensory type are added
together before being processed by the appropriate cortices. These
signals are brought together as shown on Figure 1 and are additive.
For most people, the signals from the body sensors are large compared
to the external signals during their awake states. During sleep,
the signals from the body sensors are relatively small, and the
external signals may be large enough to be detected and processed.
Normally, people do not make specific requests of the mind before
and during sleep, and thus, the mind may be randomly accessing
the information storage system and combining that information
with memory data from its own "world line" (i.e., space-time
history). When people undergo an out-of-body experience, they
perceive being out of their body with their mind functioning in
their "astral" head (i.e., where they perceive their
astral body to be). Sometimes people "see" their physical
body as separated and distinct from their astral body that may
look very similar. The author speculates that their physical brain
is still doing the data processing and that the signals from their
physical sensors have become very small compared to the external
For remote viewing, we attempt to minimize the signal from the
body sensors, while maintaining enough signal to keep the remote
viewer attached to this "reality" and, using a technique
described later, we attempt to maximize the external signal. That
technique involves starting with the "slow" senses first.
Smell, taste, and touch seem to have slow discrimination rates
(e.g., relatively long time to distinguish one smell from another),
whereas hearing is fairly fast, and vision is very fast. For that
reason, the apparent discrimination rate of each of the senses
is shown in Figure 1.
The output of each sensory cortex is the perceived sensory information.
Once the sensory information is processed into detectable senses,
the central cortex is then thought to process the information
in the form of thinking, analyzing, comparing, and reacting. It
is well-known that all these latter activities should be minimized
in order to get good remote perception data. The author is speculating
that memory is stored outside the brain and is associated with
each person's world line (i.e., the space-time history of that
person). Thus, a central cortex task of comparing requires the
brain to make a request for some information from the information
storage system, and that information will come into the brain
through the use of the external sensors as previously described.
This suggests that the external signals from an individual's own
world line are stronger than the signals from other information
in the information system. While the information is being processed
in the central cortex, the brain can also report the information
out in the form of speech or muscle movements such as writing
or jumping. These results are then filed into the information
storage system, defined as the space-time unit (STU). This filing
would be the brain activity analogous to the activity of a transmitter.
Another important concept associated with this brain model is
that "background noise" is generated that is proportional
(perhaps exponentially) to the amount of information processing
going on inside the brain. This is shown in the lower right-hand
corner of Figure 1 as channels accumulating the amount of data
processing from all the sensory cortices and the central cortex,
as well as other brain processing, including that required for
motor functions. This background noise (N) is relatively small
compared to the normal signals from the physical body sensors.
Sensor systems can detect a signal only when that signal is sufficiently
greater than the noise (the signal-to-noise ratio) such that the
processing technique being used can find the information in the
signal. Radar sensors typically have a detection threshold that
requires a signal-to-noise ratio of about 14 db, and requires
approximately a 20 db signal-to-noise ratio for accurate target
tracking. Thus, to get good remote viewing data and success in
any other type of perception activity requires three things: 1)
the signal from the physical body sensors must be greatly reduced,
2) the signal from the information storage system must be maximized,
and 3) the background noise must be minimized by reducing as much
of the brain processing activity as possible.
The signal from the body sensors can be greatly reduced by placing
the remote viewer in a dimly lit room with no pictures on the
wall, no unusual smells, and no noise. The processing load from
the brain motor functions is also reduced when the remote viewer
is sitting down in a relaxed environment. The load from the central
cortex can be reduced by training individuals to minimize those
activities. Meditators train themselves to blank out their thoughts
and not to analyze or compare when in a meditative state, thus
reducing the central cortex processing load. As mentioned earlier,
using the interviewer and remote viewer as a team, the interviewer
can take over many of these central cortex activities and thus
relieve the remote viewer of them. Finally, the processing load
from the sensory cortices can be worked around by starting the
remote viewer with a request that only asks for data from the
slow senses (e.g., "smell the perfume of Ms. X at this time").
Most of the techniques being given apply only to the "average"
person. There are individuals whose minds continually have good
access to this information storage system and who have trained
themselves to process the external information fairly efficiently.
In order to demonstrate how to work with the senses, three plots
are shown in Figure 2, which are a subjective assessment of how
the signals for both the body and external sensors vary in the
physical brain with time during a typical remote viewing session.
Included also are the background noise and the most important
parameter, the signal-to-noise ratio. The top plot (a) in Figure
2 contains three lines. The longer dashed line represents the
accumulation of signals from all the physical body sensors. (This
is done only for simplicity of this presentation.) At the beginning
of a remote viewing session, the remote viewer is brought into
a relatively sensory-free room that has a comfortable chair, a
table, paper and pen, and recording equipment (in an inconspicuous
place). As the subject relaxes for approximately 15 minutes, the
accumulated signals from the sensors decrease. Similarly, in the
middle plot in Figure 2(b), the background brain noise (N) is
shown decreasing. The rate of drop is not as fast as that of the
body sensor signals because the processing from the central cortex
activities continues after the bulk of the sensory input has diminished.
At the bottom of Figure 2(c) the signal-to-noise ratio history
When the remote
viewer is relaxed, about 15 minutes after entering the room, the
interviewer makes the specific request for information from the
slow senses. A typical request might be; "Please describe
how it feels to be at northern latitude of 22 degrees, 19 minutes,
and 48 seconds and an eastern longitude of 31 degrees, 36 minutes,
and 54 seconds. Be there at this time and be your normal size."
(That target happens to be Abu Simbel on the north shore of Lake
Nasser in Egypt.) It then seems that the mind reaches out into
the information storage system and information from the external
sensors may come into the brain of the remote viewer. It is not
necessary that the remote viewer understand the meaning of latitude
and longitude. This is shown in Figure 2a with a short dashed
line. This line represents the accumulation of all the external
signals. The solid line represents the total signal input (S),
which is the sum of the body sensor signals and the external sensor
signals. The background brain noise must increase as a result
of the new input information being processed, as shown in Figure
2b. As the external data comes in, often the background brain
noise increases rapidly. Even though the signal-to-noise ratio
begins to increase, it almost immediately drops, as shown in Figure
2c. This is what psychics call a "flash." If the remote
viewer continues to analyze the information, the information will
become distorted by information from his "world line"
or memory. If the remote viewer does not get any information,
he is requested just to continue to relax and not think. In either
case, after about a minute, another similar request is given by
the interviewer, still requesting information from the slow senses.
Each time this request is repeated, it seems that the external
information signal becomes stronger and is more detectable and
understandable. After the information begins to become clear,
only then does the interviewer ask for auditory and then visual
information. Once the signal-to-noise ratio seems strong enough
that the remote viewer can freely move around at the target location,
then the interviewer can stop making the specific requests about
the target location, time, and scale size and begin talking to
the remote viewer as if he is actually at the target. The interviewer
must be careful not to lead the remote viewer, and it is best
to ask questions that clarify what the remote viewer is reporting.
The author has, on occasion, had to make the specific request
four or five times before moving to the type of questioning just
It is also possible to have the remote viewer spend too much time
drawing what he sees, and he may drop out of the state (i.e.,
his external information signal-to-noise ratio drops below his
detection threshold). Using the above ideas, an individual can,
working with an associate, experience remote viewing. It helps
to get feedback to build your confidence that it works. This feedback
also files the correct information on the remote viewer's time
line for future reference as a memory. It is not recommended to
do more than one experiment each day because of time shifts (these
are discussed later). Open-minded, successful, and happy people
are the best at remote viewing.
Figure 3 is a schematic of the information storage that has been
discussed. Assume that all information about space and time (past,
present, and all possible futures) is contained in a large ellipsoid.
The use of an ellipsoid is simply meant to be symbolic and is
intended to represent all information over all time. This volume
has been designated a
space-time unit (STU). A two-dimensional plane is used to represent
our three dimensional physical reality at the current instant
of time. It passes through the STU perpendicular to the time axis
(the major axis of the ellipsoid). The intersection of this plane
and the surface of the STU is a circle, as shown in Figure 3.
The area inside this circle is to represent our physical universe
at the current time. Planes parallel to the one shown, would represent
other times (either past or future). Thus a line perpendicular
to these planes is a time line.
Note that an infinite number of planes, at all different angles,
could have been passed through this STU. A skewed plane would
represent a 3-dimensional space, acting over a range of our time.
Suppose that unidentified flying objects (UFO's) are in a different
reality represented by a plane moving along its time axis but
skewed to ours. Occasionally the two realities would intersect
and, in effect, materialize a UFO into our reality. Some people
like a concept of nature where there is no time. In this model,
that would be equivalent to being on the surface of the STU and
having access to all information in it, independent of time.
If you think of yourself as the central point on the plane inside
the STU at the present time, you have a time line through you
-- your world line. Your mind has access to all information in
the STU both in space and time. This is represented in Figure
3 by circular dashed lines that are supposed to be an expanding
sphere around you, depicting your mind's access to the STU. Meditators
report that as they go deeper into meditation, they feel as if
they become one with everything around them. As your external
sensor signal-to-noise ratio becomes greater, your access into
the STU becomes greater. Even though electromagnetic radiation
is limited to the speed of light within the circle representing
our physical reality, there is no reason to believe that information
transfer within the STU is limited by the speed of light. Most
researchers do not believe that remote viewing is limited by distance,
and this author suspects the same is true for psychokinesis.
All these ideas have, in one form or another, been presented before
by others. One thing that this author has noticed is that there
also seems to be some type of modulation encoded on the time line
of each person, each object, and possibly even each atom; a modulation
that is somehow proportional to emotional intensity. This is shown
in Figure 3 as a wavy line along the time line.
Normally one thinks of emotions as applied to humans and animals.
However, the author postulates for this concept that emotional
intensity applies to all things, including inanimate matter (e.g.,
the rocks inside Mt. St. Helens). Figure 4 is an example of emotional
intensity history or modulation on a time line of some target
at a remote location from a remote viewer. The emotional intensity
of the remote viewer (and probably the interviewer) during the
attempt is superimposed on the time line of the remote object,
as shown in Figure 4, with a dashed peak located at the present
time on the figure. Assume that at that point in space or on the
time line associated with the target there had been a huge emotional
experience, like a collapsed roof that killed 1000 people, as
represented by the large peak emotional intensity in the past
on Figure 4. In the example, the remote viewer's mind would go
to the specified point in space and search in time for the peak
emotional event. This is much like a sophisticated radio that
searches for the peak radio signal intensity and then locks onto
that frequency. Once the mind locks onto the time of a peak emotional
event, the complete set of information is available to the remote
viewer's external sensors as of the time of the peak emotional
event. This data can be of video quality and can be tuned into
the brain much like holography. In an example like that shown
in Figure 4, a remote viewer can unlock his mind from that peak
event and then let his mind search for the time of the next highest
peak. This is analogous to what meditators do when they put aside
thoughts that enter their heads. If this process is repeated,
the remote viewer will eventually focus on the highest remaining
peak, which will be the remote viewing attempt. There might even
be some kind of weighting function that amplifies the emotional
peaks near the present time. Usually the remote viewer has a feeling
when the information is near the present time and can proceed
to access the desired information.
In psychometry, an individual touches an object and lets information
come into his brain that is stored in the STU on the time line
of that object. They usually pick up information near peak emotional
events. The author once had the privilege of observing Dr. Charles
Tart, of the University of California-Davis, conduct a telepathy
experiment. At the sending end of the experiment, he acted like
a cheerleader and had everyone shouting instructions to the receiver,
who was located in another building but could be seen on a TV
monitor. The receiver carried out the shouted instructions accurately.
This and an analysis of the implications of Figure 4 helped the
author realize that creating a sufficiently high emotional peak
at either the target or perceiver end of an experiment may produce
information with minimum time shifts.
As this concept was further examined, the author realized that
all paranormal phenomena seem to behave this way. For example,
when Dr. William Tiller was at Stanford, he performed a PK experiment
in which a discharge tube did not become activated until 10 minutes
after the operator began attempting to affect it, but it continued
to discharge for 10 minutes after the operator was told to stop.
Other examples come from people who do "past life" hypnotic
regressions. They find that their subject's mind goes either forward
or backward in time and accesses information near an emotional
experience, usually the death of the person whose life produced
the information. They find that they can move the subject forward
and backward in time around that point and even go to other "lives."
Sometimes the first information may seem mundane. A good hypnotist
will move the person a little forward in time and find the peak
event. This suggests there are errors in the mind's search system
in time. Both position (space) and time errors also occur in remote
viewing. Measures taken to reduce these errors include being very
specific with the space and time requests and being able to move
the remote viewer's mind in both space and time to find the desired
Concepts from quantum mechanics are used to further explain the
proposed model concept. Quantum mechanics can be used to make
statistical predictions of what will be observed. The statistical
distribution of possible observations is represented by the Schrodinger
wave function. When an observation is made by any type of instrument
or by the human senses, the wave function is collapsed to some
new state. Figure 5 shows an individual observing an airplane,
in the center drawing, and thus collapsing, or at least participating
in the collapse of, the wave function to see the airplane and
its surroundings. The suggestion is that all minds participate
in a consensus reality, as in Jungian philosophy (Reference 7),
and everyone observing the same airplane sees the same airplane.
In this model, the observer's brain files this information into
the STU, where it is also stored by any other observers. The STU
keeps all the records of every event, which in Figure 5 is represented
by little circles going up from the current observation. As previously
discussed, when the individual wants to access a memory, his mind
searches back through the individual's world line in the STU to
sense that information. His external sensors acquire that information,
which he senses in his head, much like a hologram, with the data
being processed as previously discussed. All sensory information
from that memory can be accessed. When looking into the future,
the mind again accesses an event usually at a time near an emotional
peak. The wave function for that time and place contains the likelihood
for all the possible events based on all the information in the
STU at the current time. As shown in Figure 5, when the mind goes
into the future, it observes and temporarily collapses the wave
function to a possible event. These data are seen within the brain
with the same clarity as a memory because, again, the external
sensors are acquiring the information as before. These data are
also filed into the STU on the individual's world line and may
affect his future actions. Often future events are dependent on
the actions of many people, any of whom can change their minds
because they have free will. Thus, as real time marches on, the
wave functions of future events are constantly being changed to
reflect their probabilities based on current realities.
When the time of a previously predicted event finally arrives,
the state to which the wave function will collapse when observed
by the physical sensors may be quite different than what was anticipated.
This concept was first presented to the author by Dr. Henry Stapp
of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
After additional reading and discussing theoretical models with
other researchers, the author realized that his map of the STU,
shown in Figure 3, is commonly shown by others in two dimensions;
a time dimension and a space dimension used to represent all three
physical dimensions (X, Y, and Z). This is shown in Figure 6.
Also shown at the location corresponding to your present location
is the physicist's "light cone" that defines the space
time zone in our reality, which is bounded by the speed of light.
The superimposed circles represent the human mind's expanding
access to the STU as an individual allows himself to be in the
state where the signal-to-noise ratio of the external sensors
is high. In that state, an individual can have instant access
to any other world line in the STU at any time - past, present,
and probable futures. Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher of the University
of California-Richmond Field Station has an eight-dimensional
space-time model using complex geometry (Reference 8) that begins
to provide a mathematical formulation for the connectivity between
world lines in this Figure 6 map. Her model was originally developed
to explain remote viewing data. The key parameter that has been
missing in the physicist's space-time map has been another dimension,
shown as being orthogonal to the space and time dimensions in
Figure 6, that is proportional to emotional intensity. Figure
7 indicates what this might look like as a three dimensional surface.
The axes have been rotated for this presentation.
It is common for an individual during sleep to have his mind zero
in on a big, nearby emotional event, such as a plane crash, even
when it is a future occurrence. This happens because the external
sensors are very active during sleep and pick up large emotional
peaks that are displaced in both space and time.
Figure 7 also illustrates a possible explanation of why people
sometimes experience a series of events as their perception of
time is dramatically distorted from real clock time. The example
is from the author's experience. In February 1971, he was driving
past Sylmar, California, on the way to conduct a missile test.
At 6:05 a.m., the car began to shake as if all four tires had
gone flat. Time began to move very slowly, and every detail could
be seen as the car swerved all over the road. When the car stopped,
it was realized that a big earthquake had occurred. Figure 7 shows
how this was a peak emotional event. The author's world line would
have climbed to create a surface stretched in the direction of
the emotional intensity, and that the subjective time experienced
along the world line was long compared to the clock time.
The majority of this discussion has been about how the mind reaches
out into the STU to receive information. For psychokinesis, the
mental connection must also be made, but in addition you must
tell the material what you want it to do. In some unspecified
manner, the "system" translates this goal or thought
into the physical mechanism necessary to accomplish that goal.
The intensity of the specific command is important. As indicated
earlier, creating an emotionally intense situation helps the event
occur near the current time, thus providing feedback to the individual.
In the author's opinion, the majority of the energy used in accomplishing
a PK task comes from within or around the object being affected.
A simple analogy is presented in Figure 8 of a television communication
system. The television station wants to send a picture and sound
to TV viewers. The information is collected and superimposed on
electromagnetic radiation sent from the TV station antenna. At
the home of the viewer, the antenna on the roof picks up a very
weak signal which is delivered to the TV set by the antenna wire
and the TV set displays the information as a picture. The real
power or energy used by the TV set to accomplish the goal of displaying
the picture is provided by the local power company in the form
The actual energy required by the person to connect his mind to
the object and command it to bend is very small. The real energy
for PK is provided locally. In the case of metal, the dislocations
provide the heating along the grain boundaries, which allows the
grains to slip. Sometimes this heat along the grain boundaries
is so intense that the metal becomes molten and on occasion even
turns to gas. This is why there are sometimes fractures of the
metal accompanied by a loud noise. Sometimes a PK event is accompanied
by a rapid temperature drop of 10 to 20¡F in the air around
the specimen. The energy is apparently being taken out of the
local air. The amazing thing is that the PK operator does not
have to specify where the energy is to come from, the "system"
provides that detail.
When I completed this paper in 1983, I was not able to explain
how one person would be selected for a job for which there were
two people with identical experience and qualifications competing
for that job. Then one day I was reading Reference 9 and Ityhak
Bentov had a figure presenting a concept of progressively higher
levels of consciousness. This chart is shown in Figure 9. He shows
a range of consciousness for various levels of consciousness as
shown in the following table:
or Astral Reality
He suggests that the population of each band has an "energy-exchange"
curve that indicates that some of the population of a given band
may be able to extend their consciousness outside the band, even
though they normally communicate well within their population band.
By changing the scale along the bottom of the figure to Information
Handling Capacity, I realized that the person with the higher level
of consciousness, capable of handling and possibly manipulating
more information, will get the job. There are many interesting concepts
presented on this chart and I recommend reading Bentov's book, Stalking
the Wild Pendulum.
Even though I saw this chart in 1980, I felt it was difficult to
discuss in scientific forums. However, after 356 PK Parties for
over 16,500 people, I have become accustomed to talking about unusual
Figure 10 is just another way of displaying this conceptual model.
The brain is shown acting as a tuner through the STU, providing
the receiver for the mind by collecting external information as
well as the channel carrying instructions to affect a remote object.
The medical community might look into the idea that the receiver
in a senile person's brain continues to be quite functional, but
the transmitter, the information filer, is malfunctioning. This
may explain why recent data filed in the STU is not retrievable,
whereas historical data is. Furthermore, this may provide new knowledge
about which portions of the brain are related to the memory transmitting
and receiving functions. This model concept can be extended to include
creating your own future -- many people already believe that.
The purpose of this paper was to provide a conceptual model of the
brain/mind functioning to include paranormal phenomena, not to provide
the data necessary for proof. This model may provide a framework
for others to improve our understanding of the world in which we
live. Basically, this paper suggests that all paranormal phenomena
work in a similar manner. By creating a peak emotional experience,
the experimenter can cause events to occur at the present time,
providing feedback and good test results. This concept has been
tested by having PK Parties. They have been very successful and
This model lacks complete mathematical formulation and an expansive
database from good experiments. The literature provides much good
data as well as a large amount of anecdotal information. These ideas
have come from an assessment of this literature, experiments, and
observations of psychics' learning and performing many "unbelievable"
Many ideas have been presented herein that are testable. The author
hopes they will be tested and the investigators will provide feedback
to the community of researchers. There must be a scientific explanation
for these phenomena. This confidence has led to the development
of this model of how all our brains/minds work. May this pave the
way for an even better understanding of our nature.
1. G. B. Houck and J. G. Laird, Evidence of Precognition in Remote
Viewing Experiment, August 1979.
2. H. Puthoff and R. Targ, A Perceptual Channel for Information
Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent
Research, Proceedings of IEEE Vol. 64 , March 1976.
3. E. A. Rauscher, Theoretical Exploration of Remote Perception
Phenomena, Presentation to France Culture, National Radio France,
Cordoba, Spain, October 5, 1979.
4. Robert G. Jahn, The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena:
An Engineering Perspective, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 70, No.
2, February 1982.
5. Richard Bandler and John Grinder, Frogs into Princes, Real People
6. Jack Houck, PK Party Format and Materials Required, 16 March
7. Carl Gustav Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, Translated by
Beatrice Hinkle, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1965.
8. C. Ramon and E. Rauscher, Superluminal Transformations in Complex
Minkowski Spaces, Foundations of Physics, Vol. 10, Nos. 7/8, August
9. Ityhak Bentov, Stalking the Wild Pendulum, E. P. Dutton, New