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December 4, 2002 (This paper was originally written in 1980 and then published in Archaeus in 1983)

CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF PARANORMAL PHENOMENA

by: Jack Houck

Introduction

There is no question but that today's "hard" science has progressed to the point where it can describe our everyday reality very well. Much progress is now being made in the human, or "soft," sciences as well, and many models have been formulated in an attempt to expand the currently accepted understanding of physics, a so-called hard science, to include consciousness of the human mind.

The particular interest of the author for the past 22 years* has been trying to understand and explain those paranormal phenomena that have been labeled remote viewing, telepathy, mind reading, psychometry, psychokinesis, and psychic healing.

When a literature review and experiments suggested that there might well be something to paranormal (sometimes referred to as "psychic)" phenomena, efforts were turned toward improving the reliability of experiments in these areas as well as applying and understanding these phenomena. Initial experiments were in remote viewing (Reference 1), which involves a subject attempting projection of his mind to a remote location to describe the scene. Dr. Harold Puthoff and Mr. Russell Targ of Stanford Research Institute International relabeled clairvoyance and out-of-body or astral travel as "remote viewing" (Reference 2), because this term is a more accurate label and dissociates remote viewing from the occult.


Remote Viewing


The conceptual model described in this paper was developed as a result of experiments conducted. Most of the ideas incorporated in this model are not new; almost all of them have been presented before. The model simply integrates them and provides an interface for the many models previously formulated. After it has been further tested and refined, this model could be a powerful link between the hard and soft sciences.


The underlying concepts of this model follow in this paragraph. The human brain is both a transmitter and a receiver of information . . . the mind is not local just to the human body. Information that is about events in all space and time is stored all around us. The mind accesses this information storage system. The brain processes information as a very advanced computer would from both our physical senses and from this stored information. The brain/mind can tune into any information in this storage system when given specific instructions about space and time. The more specific the instructions about the information desired, the better the quality of the received (or retrieved) information.

Experimental observations since 1980, when the model was developed, have suggested that all paranormal phenomena could be explained using the same concept. Researchers in other kinds of paranormal phenomena may find this model useful for increasing their understanding and the reliability of their experiments.

When the environment is carefully controlled (i.e., a nearly sensory free, dimly lit room with no pictures on the wall, no unusual smells, and no noise), anyone can experience remote viewing with the aid of a skillful interviewer. The interviewer is responsible for doing the analytical thinking. He asks questions that allow the remote viewer to be open to perceive the information from all the senses (i.e., sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste), which has caused a number of researchers (References 3 and 4) to call it "remote perception."

The data reported at the time of the remote viewing can often be accurate, but related to some other time at the target location. Further analysis suggests that reported data correspond to a time at or near when a peak emotional experience occurs at that location. These time shifts, which may occur either forward and backward in time, are one reason these types of experiments have been difficult to replicate. Techniques for diminishing these difficulties are discussed later in this paper.

Once the remote viewer is reporting data from the target location, he has complete mobility around the target. He can go above it to look down on it and all around it. He can also move freely through walls. It has been observed in the author's experiments, that at times the remote viewer perceives things to be a different size from what he would normally perceive them to be. This is easily corrected by asking him to be his normal size and then things will appear as they normally do. The specificity required by the interviewer of the remote viewer improves the remote viewing data reported. The more specific the interviewer and the remote viewer are about the location of the target (e.g., could be the location of a person, latitude and longitude coordinates, a photograph), the time for which the information is desired (e.g., a month from now), the size the remote viewer assumes at the target (e.g., normal size), and the type of information desired (e.g., see the target), the more successful the remote viewing becomes.

The psychological environment of a remote viewing experiment is also very important. The interviewer must be supportive of and have some rapport with the remote viewer. Understanding Neuro-Linguistic Programming (Reference 5) can be very useful to the interviewer with respect to working with the remote viewer's primary brain sensory processing system. Experimenters who believe remote viewing will not work generally confirm their belief (self-fulfilling prophecy). If you want good remote viewing results, you must know that it works and must concentrate on getting good data. It is a technique that can be taught; performance does improve with practice, and the author believes anyone can be trained to become proficient at remote viewing.


Warm-Forming


On the basis of early experience with remote viewing, the author predicted that psychokinesis (mind interacting with matter) could also be better controlled by creating the proper environment (i.e., creating a peak, emotionally intense situation), having the individual connect his mind with the object to be affected as in remote viewing, and then commanding it to do his will.

In January of 1981, the author began experimenting with this idea by conducting psychokinesis (PK) Parties (Reference 6). Approximately 85 percent of all the people attending these parties (approximately 16,500 people of all ages and types at 357 parties) have learned to bend metal using PK, a process called "warm-forming," because this term is consistent with the slight temperature increases noted and dissociates warm-forming from the occult. Approximately half the people who have learned to warm-form retain the skill even outside the PK Party atmosphere. These PK Parties have been replicated over 100 times by other researchers with similar results. PK Parties are reliable demonstrations of PK.

One of the reasons the PK Party format works so well is that people get nearly immediate feedback. Metallurgical analysis of the warm-formed metal and plastic provides additional insight into the physical process that is occurring in the material. It has been found that the two most important characteristics of metal that is easily warm-formed are the large number of dislocations (i.e., broken crystal structures along the metal grain boundaries) and low thermal conductivity. The other key factor is that the individual must be consciously willing to warm-form the metal. He must make a mental connection to the object to be bent and deliberately will it to bend. After a brief interval, the material becomes soft from internal heating along the grain boundaries. Then a little force will accomplish the bend. Even metal with low thermal conductivity stays soft only from 5 to 30 seconds, and thus the most difficult task is finding the moment to add the extra force. Many brittle and otherwise physically unbendable objects have been warm-formed (i.e., bent) at these parties. A few pieces of silverware that have been warm-formed have then broken with a loud popping sound. Some objects with large internal stresses, and a large number of dislocations have been bent while being held in one hand and not touched by the other hand. There have also been reports of other objects being bent in the room. This is probably due to existing stresses in those objects. Often a person who is unsuccessful in his first attempt to do warm-forming learns how at subsequent parties. People also seem to improve by attending multiple parties, indicating that training is possible and that psychokinesis, like remote viewing, can be taught.

In both remote viewing and warm-forming, there is at times a phenomenon the researchers refer to as "the first-time effect." A person may get dramatic results the first time he attempts one of these activities and fail the next time he tries. This occurs because he analyzes what he did and, failing to understand it, becomes a little frightened. The conceptual model of the phenomenon described in this paper gives people confidence that there can be a scientific explanation, and it is believed this model can help reduce the "first time effect."

In addition to the remote viewing and PK experiments, observations have been made of a number of psychic activities by individuals who seem to have unusual talents in mind reading, telepathy, and psychometry. These activities also seem to conform to the conceptual model presented herein.

Conceptual Model

With the conceptual model of a brain transmitting and receiving information that is stored all around us, a question naturally arises as to where this information is stored. It is not known. However, it is interesting to note that our human senses only perceive, for example, a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is not to suggest that the information storage system is necessarily in the known electromagnetic spectrum. To the author's knowledge, no instruments other than the brain have been able to measure or directly contact this external information storage system. There are instruments that seem to respond to human will or register when a paranormal event occurs, but it is thought this is due to PK.

Brain

There is much research currently underway on brain function. The bio-chemical, quantum mechanical, and holographic models of the brain all have made great contributions to our understanding of how it works.

The model of the brain presented herein is simplistic by comparison, but is adequate to help understand paranormal phenomena. The model uses the digital computer analogy for most brain functions, taking information from both the physical body sensors and the external information storage system, processing it to produce what we perceive as senses, and additionally processing this information by doing what we call thinking, analyzing, comparing, and reacting. This output then goes into the information storage system (i.e., memory) and to the reporting function (i.e., speech, muscle movements, etc.). This model of the brain is shown functionally in Figure 1. The physical sensors are listed on the left side of the figure. The output from each sensor is represented as if a single signal (S) comes from it with the subscript B to designate that it is from a physical Body sensor. The signal from the nose is designated as 1, tongue as 2, skin and nerve endings as 3, ears as 4, and eyes as 5. Each of these signals goes into the corresponding brain cortex for processing, as shown in Figure 1.

As stated previously, the mind seems to be capable of reaching outside the physical body and acquiring information in all sensory channels from remote locations (outside the physical body to a distance on the other side of the earth and beyond). This is represented in Figure 1 by a set of signals (S) with the subscript (E) to designate that it is from sensors External to the physical body. These senses are numbered in the same manner as the physical sensors.

These external sensor signals seem to enter the brain and be processed by the corresponding physical sensory cortices, as if the cortices were unaware of whether the signals emanated from the body sensors or the source external to the body. It appears that people can simultaneously experience both signals overlaid on each other. For example, what some people see as an "aura" may be the overlay of signals from both the physical body and external sensors. It is as if the signals for each sensory type are added together before being processed by the appropriate cortices. These signals are brought together as shown on Figure 1 and are additive. For most people, the signals from the body sensors are large compared to the external signals during their awake states. During sleep, the signals from the body sensors are relatively small, and the external signals may be large enough to be detected and processed. Normally, people do not make specific requests of the mind before and during sleep, and thus, the mind may be randomly accessing the information storage system and combining that information with memory data from its own "world line" (i.e., space-time history). When people undergo an out-of-body experience, they perceive being out of their body with their mind functioning in their "astral" head (i.e., where they perceive their astral body to be). Sometimes people "see" their physical body as separated and distinct from their astral body that may look very similar. The author speculates that their physical brain is still doing the data processing and that the signals from their physical sensors have become very small compared to the external signals.

For remote viewing, we attempt to minimize the signal from the body sensors, while maintaining enough signal to keep the remote viewer attached to this "reality" and, using a technique described later, we attempt to maximize the external signal. That technique involves starting with the "slow" senses first. Smell, taste, and touch seem to have slow discrimination rates (e.g., relatively long time to distinguish one smell from another), whereas hearing is fairly fast, and vision is very fast. For that reason, the apparent discrimination rate of each of the senses is shown in Figure 1.

The output of each sensory cortex is the perceived sensory information. Once the sensory information is processed into detectable senses, the central cortex is then thought to process the information in the form of thinking, analyzing, comparing, and reacting. It is well-known that all these latter activities should be minimized in order to get good remote perception data. The author is speculating that memory is stored outside the brain and is associated with each person's world line (i.e., the space-time history of that person). Thus, a central cortex task of comparing requires the brain to make a request for some information from the information storage system, and that information will come into the brain through the use of the external sensors as previously described. This suggests that the external signals from an individual's own world line are stronger than the signals from other information in the information system. While the information is being processed in the central cortex, the brain can also report the information out in the form of speech or muscle movements such as writing or jumping. These results are then filed into the information storage system, defined as the space-time unit (STU). This filing would be the brain activity analogous to the activity of a transmitter.

Another important concept associated with this brain model is that "background noise" is generated that is proportional (perhaps exponentially) to the amount of information processing going on inside the brain. This is shown in the lower right-hand corner of Figure 1 as channels accumulating the amount of data processing from all the sensory cortices and the central cortex, as well as other brain processing, including that required for motor functions. This background noise (N) is relatively small compared to the normal signals from the physical body sensors. Sensor systems can detect a signal only when that signal is sufficiently greater than the noise (the signal-to-noise ratio) such that the processing technique being used can find the information in the signal. Radar sensors typically have a detection threshold that requires a signal-to-noise ratio of about 14 db, and requires approximately a 20 db signal-to-noise ratio for accurate target tracking. Thus, to get good remote viewing data and success in any other type of perception activity requires three things: 1) the signal from the physical body sensors must be greatly reduced, 2) the signal from the information storage system must be maximized, and 3) the background noise must be minimized by reducing as much of the brain processing activity as possible.

The signal from the body sensors can be greatly reduced by placing the remote viewer in a dimly lit room with no pictures on the wall, no unusual smells, and no noise. The processing load from the brain motor functions is also reduced when the remote viewer is sitting down in a relaxed environment. The load from the central cortex can be reduced by training individuals to minimize those activities. Meditators train themselves to blank out their thoughts and not to analyze or compare when in a meditative state, thus reducing the central cortex processing load. As mentioned earlier, using the interviewer and remote viewer as a team, the interviewer can take over many of these central cortex activities and thus relieve the remote viewer of them. Finally, the processing load from the sensory cortices can be worked around by starting the remote viewer with a request that only asks for data from the slow senses (e.g., "smell the perfume of Ms. X at this time"). Most of the techniques being given apply only to the "average" person. There are individuals whose minds continually have good access to this information storage system and who have trained themselves to process the external information fairly efficiently.

In order to demonstrate how to work with the senses, three plots are shown in Figure 2, which are a subjective assessment of how the signals for both the body and external sensors vary in the physical brain with time during a typical remote viewing session. Included also are the background noise and the most important parameter, the signal-to-noise ratio. The top plot (a) in Figure 2 contains three lines. The longer dashed line represents the accumulation of signals from all the physical body sensors. (This is done only for simplicity of this presentation.) At the beginning of a remote viewing session, the remote viewer is brought into a relatively sensory-free room that has a comfortable chair, a table, paper and pen, and recording equipment (in an inconspicuous place). As the subject relaxes for approximately 15 minutes, the accumulated signals from the sensors decrease. Similarly, in the middle plot in Figure 2(b), the background brain noise (N) is shown decreasing. The rate of drop is not as fast as that of the body sensor signals because the processing from the central cortex activities continues after the bulk of the sensory input has diminished. At the bottom of Figure 2(c) the signal-to-noise ratio history is shown.

When the remote viewer is relaxed, about 15 minutes after entering the room, the interviewer makes the specific request for information from the slow senses. A typical request might be; "Please describe how it feels to be at northern latitude of 22 degrees, 19 minutes, and 48 seconds and an eastern longitude of 31 degrees, 36 minutes, and 54 seconds. Be there at this time and be your normal size." (That target happens to be Abu Simbel on the north shore of Lake Nasser in Egypt.) It then seems that the mind reaches out into the information storage system and information from the external sensors may come into the brain of the remote viewer. It is not necessary that the remote viewer understand the meaning of latitude and longitude. This is shown in Figure 2a with a short dashed line. This line represents the accumulation of all the external signals. The solid line represents the total signal input (S), which is the sum of the body sensor signals and the external sensor signals. The background brain noise must increase as a result of the new input information being processed, as shown in Figure 2b. As the external data comes in, often the background brain noise increases rapidly. Even though the signal-to-noise ratio begins to increase, it almost immediately drops, as shown in Figure 2c. This is what psychics call a "flash." If the remote viewer continues to analyze the information, the information will become distorted by information from his "world line" or memory. If the remote viewer does not get any information, he is requested just to continue to relax and not think. In either case, after about a minute, another similar request is given by the interviewer, still requesting information from the slow senses. Each time this request is repeated, it seems that the external information signal becomes stronger and is more detectable and understandable. After the information begins to become clear, only then does the interviewer ask for auditory and then visual information. Once the signal-to-noise ratio seems strong enough that the remote viewer can freely move around at the target location, then the interviewer can stop making the specific requests about the target location, time, and scale size and begin talking to the remote viewer as if he is actually at the target. The interviewer must be careful not to lead the remote viewer, and it is best to ask questions that clarify what the remote viewer is reporting. The author has, on occasion, had to make the specific request four or five times before moving to the type of questioning just described.

It is also possible to have the remote viewer spend too much time drawing what he sees, and he may drop out of the state (i.e., his external information signal-to-noise ratio drops below his detection threshold). Using the above ideas, an individual can, working with an associate, experience remote viewing. It helps to get feedback to build your confidence that it works. This feedback also files the correct information on the remote viewer's time line for future reference as a memory. It is not recommended to do more than one experiment each day because of time shifts (these are discussed later). Open-minded, successful, and happy people are the best at remote viewing.

STU

Figure 3 is a schematic of the information storage that has been discussed. Assume that all information about space and time (past, present, and all possible futures) is contained in a large ellipsoid. The use of an ellipsoid is simply meant to be symbolic and is intended to represent all information over all time. This volume has been designated a

space-time unit (STU). A two-dimensional plane is used to represent our three dimensional physical reality at the current instant of time. It passes through the STU perpendicular to the time axis (the major axis of the ellipsoid). The intersection of this plane and the surface of the STU is a circle, as shown in Figure 3. The area inside this circle is to represent our physical universe at the current time. Planes parallel to the one shown, would represent other times (either past or future). Thus a line perpendicular to these planes is a time line.

Note that an infinite number of planes, at all different angles, could have been passed through this STU. A skewed plane would represent a 3-dimensional space, acting over a range of our time. Suppose that unidentified flying objects (UFO's) are in a different reality represented by a plane moving along its time axis but skewed to ours. Occasionally the two realities would intersect and, in effect, materialize a UFO into our reality. Some people like a concept of nature where there is no time. In this model, that would be equivalent to being on the surface of the STU and having access to all information in it, independent of time.

If you think of yourself as the central point on the plane inside the STU at the present time, you have a time line through you -- your world line. Your mind has access to all information in the STU both in space and time. This is represented in Figure 3 by circular dashed lines that are supposed to be an expanding sphere around you, depicting your mind's access to the STU. Meditators report that as they go deeper into meditation, they feel as if they become one with everything around them. As your external sensor signal-to-noise ratio becomes greater, your access into the STU becomes greater. Even though electromagnetic radiation is limited to the speed of light within the circle representing our physical reality, there is no reason to believe that information transfer within the STU is limited by the speed of light. Most researchers do not believe that remote viewing is limited by distance, and this author suspects the same is true for psychokinesis.

Emotional Intensity

All these ideas have, in one form or another, been presented before by others. One thing that this author has noticed is that there also seems to be some type of modulation encoded on the time line of each person, each object, and possibly even each atom; a modulation that is somehow proportional to emotional intensity. This is shown in Figure 3 as a wavy line along the time line.

Normally one thinks of emotions as applied to humans and animals. However, the author postulates for this concept that emotional intensity applies to all things, including inanimate matter (e.g., the rocks inside Mt. St. Helens). Figure 4 is an example of emotional intensity history or modulation on a time line of some target at a remote location from a remote viewer. The emotional intensity of the remote viewer (and probably the interviewer) during the attempt is superimposed on the time line of the remote object, as shown in Figure 4, with a dashed peak located at the present time on the figure. Assume that at that point in space or on the time line associated with the target there had been a huge emotional experience, like a collapsed roof that killed 1000 people, as represented by the large peak emotional intensity in the past on Figure 4. In the example, the remote viewer's mind would go to the specified point in space and search in time for the peak emotional event. This is much like a sophisticated radio that searches for the peak radio signal intensity and then locks onto that frequency. Once the mind locks onto the time of a peak emotional event, the complete set of information is available to the remote viewer's external sensors as of the time of the peak emotional event. This data can be of video quality and can be tuned into the brain much like holography. In an example like that shown in Figure 4, a remote viewer can unlock his mind from that peak event and then let his mind search for the time of the next highest peak. This is analogous to what meditators do when they put aside thoughts that enter their heads. If this process is repeated, the remote viewer will eventually focus on the highest remaining peak, which will be the remote viewing attempt. There might even be some kind of weighting function that amplifies the emotional peaks near the present time. Usually the remote viewer has a feeling when the information is near the present time and can proceed to access the desired information.

In psychometry, an individual touches an object and lets information come into his brain that is stored in the STU on the time line of that object. They usually pick up information near peak emotional events. The author once had the privilege of observing Dr. Charles Tart, of the University of California-Davis, conduct a telepathy experiment. At the sending end of the experiment, he acted like a cheerleader and had everyone shouting instructions to the receiver, who was located in another building but could be seen on a TV monitor. The receiver carried out the shouted instructions accurately. This and an analysis of the implications of Figure 4 helped the author realize that creating a sufficiently high emotional peak at either the target or perceiver end of an experiment may produce information with minimum time shifts.

As this concept was further examined, the author realized that all paranormal phenomena seem to behave this way. For example, when Dr. William Tiller was at Stanford, he performed a PK experiment in which a discharge tube did not become activated until 10 minutes after the operator began attempting to affect it, but it continued to discharge for 10 minutes after the operator was told to stop. Other examples come from people who do "past life" hypnotic regressions. They find that their subject's mind goes either forward or backward in time and accesses information near an emotional experience, usually the death of the person whose life produced the information. They find that they can move the subject forward and backward in time around that point and even go to other "lives." Sometimes the first information may seem mundane. A good hypnotist will move the person a little forward in time and find the peak event. This suggests there are errors in the mind's search system in time. Both position (space) and time errors also occur in remote viewing. Measures taken to reduce these errors include being very specific with the space and time requests and being able to move the remote viewer's mind in both space and time to find the desired information.


Quantum Mechanics Relationship

Concepts from quantum mechanics are used to further explain the proposed model concept. Quantum mechanics can be used to make statistical predictions of what will be observed. The statistical distribution of possible observations is represented by the Schrodinger wave function. When an observation is made by any type of instrument or by the human senses, the wave function is collapsed to some new state. Figure 5 shows an individual observing an airplane, in the center drawing, and thus collapsing, or at least participating in the collapse of, the wave function to see the airplane and its surroundings. The suggestion is that all minds participate in a consensus reality, as in Jungian philosophy (Reference 7), and everyone observing the same airplane sees the same airplane. In this model, the observer's brain files this information into the STU, where it is also stored by any other observers. The STU keeps all the records of every event, which in Figure 5 is represented by little circles going up from the current observation. As previously discussed, when the individual wants to access a memory, his mind searches back through the individual's world line in the STU to sense that information. His external sensors acquire that information, which he senses in his head, much like a hologram, with the data being processed as previously discussed. All sensory information from that memory can be accessed. When looking into the future, the mind again accesses an event usually at a time near an emotional peak. The wave function for that time and place contains the likelihood for all the possible events based on all the information in the STU at the current time. As shown in Figure 5, when the mind goes into the future, it observes and temporarily collapses the wave function to a possible event. These data are seen within the brain with the same clarity as a memory because, again, the external sensors are acquiring the information as before. These data are also filed into the STU on the individual's world line and may affect his future actions. Often future events are dependent on the actions of many people, any of whom can change their minds because they have free will. Thus, as real time marches on, the wave functions of future events are constantly being changed to reflect their probabilities based on current realities.

When the time of a previously predicted event finally arrives, the state to which the wave function will collapse when observed by the physical sensors may be quite different than what was anticipated. This concept was first presented to the author by Dr. Henry Stapp of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

Space-Time Map

After additional reading and discussing theoretical models with other researchers, the author realized that his map of the STU, shown in Figure 3, is commonly shown by others in two dimensions; a time dimension and a space dimension used to represent all three physical dimensions (X, Y, and Z). This is shown in Figure 6. Also shown at the location corresponding to your present location is the physicist's "light cone" that defines the space time zone in our reality, which is bounded by the speed of light. The superimposed circles represent the human mind's expanding access to the STU as an individual allows himself to be in the state where the signal-to-noise ratio of the external
sensors is high. In that state, an individual can have instant access to any other world line in the STU at any time - past, present, and probable futures. Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher of the University of California-Richmond Field Station has an eight-dimensional space-time model using complex geometry (Reference 8) that begins to provide a mathematical formulation for the connectivity between world lines in this Figure 6 map. Her model was originally developed to explain remote viewing data. The key parameter that has been missing in the physicist's space-time map has been another dimension, shown as being orthogonal to the space and time dimensions in Figure 6, that is proportional to emotional intensity. Figure 7 indicates what this might look like as a three dimensional surface. The axes have been rotated for this presentation.

It is common for an individual during sleep to have his mind zero in on a big, nearby emotional event, such as a plane crash, even when it is a future occurrence. This happens because the external sensors are very active during sleep and pick up large emotional peaks that are displaced in both space and time.

Figure 7 also illustrates a possible explanation of why people sometimes experience a series of events as their perception of time is dramatically distorted from real clock time. The example is from the author's experience. In February 1971, he was driving past Sylmar, California, on the way to conduct a missile test. At 6:05 a.m., the car began to shake as if all four tires had gone flat. Time began to move very slowly, and every detail could be seen as the car swerved all over the road. When the car stopped, it was realized that a big earthquake had occurred. Figure 7 shows how this was a peak emotional event. The author's world line would have climbed to create a surface stretched in the direction of the emotional intensity, and that the subjective time experienced along the world line was long compared to the clock time.

Psychokinesis

The majority of this discussion has been about how the mind reaches out into the STU to receive information. For psychokinesis, the mental connection must also be made, but in addition you must tell the material what you want it to do. In some unspecified manner, the "system" translates this goal or thought into the physical mechanism necessary to accomplish that goal. The intensity of the specific command is important. As indicated earlier, creating an emotionally intense situation helps the event occur near the current time, thus providing feedback to the individual. In the author's opinion, the majority of the energy used in accomplishing a PK task comes from within or around the object being affected.

A simple analogy is presented in Figure 8 of a television communication system. The television station wants to send a picture and sound to TV viewers. The information is collected and superimposed on electromagnetic radiation sent from the TV station antenna. At the home of the viewer, the antenna on the roof picks up a very weak signal which is delivered to the TV set by the antenna wire and the TV set displays the information as a picture. The real power or energy used by the TV set to accomplish the goal of displaying the picture is provided by the local power company in the form of electricity.


The actual energy required by the person to connect his mind to the object and command it to bend is very small. The real energy for PK is provided locally. In the case of metal, the dislocations provide the heating along the grain boundaries, which allows the grains to slip. Sometimes this heat along the grain boundaries is so intense that the metal becomes molten and on occasion even turns to gas. This is why there are sometimes fractures of the metal accompanied by a loud noise. Sometimes a PK event is accompanied by a rapid temperature drop of 10 to 20¡F in the air around the specimen. The energy is apparently being taken out of the local air. The amazing thing is that the PK operator does not have to specify where the energy is to come from, the "system" provides that detail.

When I completed this paper in 1983, I was not able to explain how one person would be selected for a job for which there were two people with identical experience and qualifications competing for that job. Then one day I was reading Reference 9 and Ityhak Bentov had a figure presenting a concept of progressively higher levels of consciousness. This chart is shown in Figure 9. He shows a range of consciousness for various levels of consciousness as shown in the following table:

Label Population of Band
f1 Atom or Matter
f2 Virus and Bacteria
f3 Plants
f4 Animals
f5 Humans (low level)
f6 Humans (high level)
f7 Emotional or Astral Reality
f8 Mental Reality
f9 Intuitive Reality

He suggests that the population of each band has an "energy-exchange" curve that indicates that some of the population of a given band may be able to extend their consciousness outside the band, even though they normally communicate well within their population band. By changing the scale along the bottom of the figure to Information Handling Capacity, I realized that the person with the higher level of consciousness, capable of handling and possibly manipulating more information, will get the job. There are many interesting concepts presented on this chart and I recommend reading Bentov's book, Stalking the Wild Pendulum.

Even though I saw this chart in 1980, I felt it was difficult to discuss in scientific forums. However, after 356 PK Parties for over 16,500 people, I have become accustomed to talking about unusual concepts.


Summary

Figure 10 is just another way of displaying this conceptual model. The brain is shown acting as a tuner through the STU, providing the receiver for the mind by collecting external information as well as the channel carrying instructions to affect a remote object. The medical community might look into the idea that the receiver in a senile person's brain continues to be quite functional, but the transmitter, the information filer, is malfunctioning. This may explain why recent data filed in the STU is not retrievable, whereas historical data is. Furthermore, this may provide new knowledge about which portions of the brain are related to the memory transmitting and receiving functions. This model concept can be extended to include creating your own future -- many people already believe that.


The purpose of this paper was to provide a conceptual model of the brain/mind functioning to include paranormal phenomena, not to provide the data necessary for proof. This model may provide a framework for others to improve our understanding of the world in which we live. Basically, this paper suggests that all paranormal phenomena work in a similar manner. By creating a peak emotional experience, the experimenter can cause events to occur at the present time, providing feedback and good test results. This concept has been tested by having PK Parties. They have been very successful and replicable.

This model lacks complete mathematical formulation and an expansive database from good experiments. The literature provides much good data as well as a large amount of anecdotal information. These ideas have come from an assessment of this literature, experiments, and observations of psychics' learning and performing many "unbelievable" feats.

Many ideas have been presented herein that are testable. The author hopes they will be tested and the investigators will provide feedback to the community of researchers. There must be a scientific explanation for these phenomena. This confidence has led to the development of this model of how all our brains/minds work. May this pave the way for an even better understanding of our nature.

References

1. G. B. Houck and J. G. Laird, Evidence of Precognition in Remote Viewing Experiment, August 1979.

2. H. Puthoff and R. Targ, A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research, Proceedings of IEEE Vol. 64 , March 1976.

3. E. A. Rauscher, Theoretical Exploration of Remote Perception Phenomena, Presentation to France Culture, National Radio France, Cordoba, Spain, October 5, 1979.

4. Robert G. Jahn, The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena: An Engineering Perspective, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 70, No. 2, February 1982.

5. Richard Bandler and John Grinder, Frogs into Princes, Real People Press, 1979.

6. Jack Houck, PK Party Format and Materials Required, 16 March 1982.

7. Carl Gustav Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, Translated by Beatrice Hinkle, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1965.

8. C. Ramon and E. Rauscher, Superluminal Transformations in Complex Minkowski Spaces, Foundations of Physics, Vol. 10, Nos. 7/8, August 1980.

9. Ityhak Bentov, Stalking the Wild Pendulum, E. P. Dutton, New York, 1977.
 
   
 

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